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Japan - Yen
1 = 100 yen senam
International designation: JPY
Denomination banknotes in circulation: 1000, 5000 and 10 000 yen
Value of coins in circulation: 500, 100, 50, 10, 5 and 1 yen
It should also be pointed out that the new Japanese money came after the war in 1946. These were in denominations of 1,000, 100, 10, 5 and 1 yen.
The rate of inflation in the country was quite strong, why did appear larger nominal value. Today, there are in circulation coins of 500, 100, 50, 10, 5 and 1 yen. It also notes in 10, 000, 5000, 2000, 1000, yen, issued in the period from 1993 to 2004. The most recent bills (1000, 5000, 10, 000 yen) in 2004 are the latest series E.
It should also be pointed out that the country used the coins which were made from different alloys, but once visited the country inflation, more and more rarely began to appear in everyday life.
It should be pointed out that on the bills that were walking after the war were depicted political figures and political elite of the world, Shotoku Ninomiya, Taysuke Itagaki, Korekie Takahashi, Tomomi Iwakura, Ito Hirobumi, Inadzo Nitobe, Soseki Natsume, Yukichi Fukidzava. On the bills in 2004 were added to this list Itio Higuchi, Hideo Noguchi, Murasaki Shikibu.
In general it can be concluded that the development of the monetary system is quite interesting and measured. Yet today the country is current national currency, which is not only revered and respected, but also quite secure.
Currency quoted on the world financial market, worth pointing out that the ratio of the currency is one of the most popular, and many experienced traders advise newcomers to begin their ascent, with the help of the currency.
That is, the currency can be successfully established and advanced. In the country you are entitled to use, and foreign currency.
Currency of the country is special, original and unique, many of you know what the currency is one of the most popular currencies in the Forex market.
It is worth noting that the currency is decorated in classic style, namely, on the obverse the portrait of a politician, but on the other side attractions and cultural values. The system security features at a very high level, and provides an opportunity to consider the currency of one of the most stable and secure.
Above all, it should be noted that the currency popular in their country, and beyond.
Tourism in the country is present, Japan leads many adventurers who enjoy visiting all the sights and cultural values of the country.
It should be sure to know with which currency you can make purchases and pay at the hotel.
The country has a free circulation of U.S. dollar and the euro, so coming into the country should not puzzle over where to change money.
Also keep in mind that money is best to change it in banks or exchange offices, but the street is not worth risking their savings.
Japanese Yen - one of the most popular currencies in the global market. That it was only recently - in the middle of the XX century one could not imagine that the Japanese currency will be among the reserve in the world. The crisis of 2008 finally secured the status of the yen "safe haven" in which to wait out the storm in the markets.
The history of money in Japan is closely connected with China. Extensive experience in neighboring parts of the organization of commodity-money relations people took over the Japanese archipelago for centuries, although with a clear delay. For example, in China in the X century BC already minted coins, while in Japan the role of money is still played by the rice grains and arrowheads - a system that also emerged in the Chinese Empire.
The first metallic money, get circulated in Japan, there were coins imported from China, and the first Japanese coins, which started minting in the VIII century, the Chinese copied by weight and appearance. Actually, the word "yen," which in the XIX century it became the name of the national currency of Japan, is a direct borrowing of the Chinese, "yuan". Like the "Yuan", Japanese "en" in Russian is most often translated as "round object": China's yuan money called back when the role played by exchange small round shells. Subsequently, the name shifted to coin money and that the Japanese imported from China, came to be called like a word. Of the yuan was also the name of the Korean won.
In the Middle Ages, Japan's economy has experienced several periods of decline and recovery, during which the rulers alternately return to commodity money and the import of Chinese coins, began issuing their own money - both metal and paper. The centralized system has developed in the XVII century in the era of Tokugawa shogunate - in Japan first appeared uniform with gold, silver and bronze coins, which are exchanged with each other through a flexible exchange rate. At the same time to indicate the money is often used in Chinese characters.
Tokugawa system lasted until the middle of XIX century, marked the end of her opening of Japan by foreigners. By the early 1850s, silver coins exchanged in Japan for the gold at the rate of 1:5, while in Europe, the course was 1:15. Arrived in the country, Europeans and Americans began to take out of the chests of gold money of the country by the end of the decade led to the eventual collapse of the Japanese financial system. In 1859, the status of the official currency of Japan was a Mexican dollar - in the XIX century, this coin is widespread in the East. A special kind of Mexican dollar was produced by Japanese mint, semi-feudal and local governments have begun haphazard release of regional currencies. The economy plunged into chaos: the amount of money in ten years from 1859 to 1869 years, increased 2.5-fold, and money depreciated in the eyes, the prices do not keep up with inflation.
The arrival of the yen
Against this background, in 1868, Japan's civil war: the supporters of the emperor, who remained the legitimate ruler of Japan, eager to end the crisis and humiliation of the late shogunate. The conflict between the imperial Kyoto and segunskim Edo (Tokyo) ended with the defeat of the Tokugawa shogunate and the restoration of direct imperial rule.
The first steps of the new Meiji government were aimed at a comprehensive modernization of Japan. It was carried out with an eye to the West. The first priority was the centralization of power, which was necessary to bring in divine form the country's finances. The logical beginning of the financial reform was the introduction of a new currency - the yen. Equipment for the production of new coins purchased in Hong Kong, where previously produced silver money on the model of the Mexican dollar. On the same pattern and were minted the first silver yen. The new currency was Decimal - yen divided by 100 in September 1000 and rin. One yen should contain about 25 grams of silver or 1.5 grams of gold, but soon on the bimetallic standard was abandoned in favor of gold, in which one yen was equal to half of the U.S. dollar. In the early years along with new money continued to walk the old - in all its diversity. Act on the introduction of Japan's single currency was adopted only in 1871. A year later appeared the first to use paper yen - banknotes were printed in Germany.
The new currency has successfully served as the basis for the development of Japan over the next decades. Greatly cheapen the yen began only during the Second World War. In 1946 the old currency was replaced by much cheaper "new yen".
Yen as world currency
In parallel with it, from 1945 to 1958, the American occupation authorities issued "Yen series B". In 1949, the Japanese yen was re-pegged to the dollar at the rate of 1:360. Soon denomination banknotes Japanese entrenched in the range of 1,000 to 10,000. The role of small change coins began to carry from one to 500 yen. Seine are still used in non-cash transactions, and has already been given on rinah not remember.
But in the 70s, after the U.S. abandonment of the gold standard, the Japanese currency began to appreciate rapidly - so much so that government and business community is seriously afraid for the fate of the economy, heavily dependent on exports. The government has begun to try to restrain the growth of the yen, actively participating in currency trading. However, in 1978 the dollar has already requested 211 yen. Only the energy crisis of 1979, during which much more expensive imported hydrocarbons Japan, caused the yen to fall slightly.
In 1985, the yen has risen sharply again after the "Plaza Accord", when the country's Big Five have agreed to artificially weaken the U.S. dollar. As a result, by 1991 the value of the dollar against the deutsche mark and yen decreased by half. In 1995, the yen was exchanged for dollars at the rate of 1:80. After that, the Japanese currency fell again and continued to fall against the backdrop of financial crisis and economic bubble followed by a decade. However, by 2011 the Japanese currency set a new record value against the dollar, reaching a record rate 1:76.
Such significant variations are in part a reflection of the status of the yen as one of the most common financial instruments - currency volatility makes it very attractive to speculative investors. In terms of trading on the world market is second only to the Japanese currency dollar and euro.
Have another feature of the yen, home. Now in Japan commercially produced seven coins, which greatly differ in size, weight and shape - lightweight aluminum, heavy brass, with smooth or ribbed edges, with a hole in the center or not. It is believed that this allows you to navigate the money to people with poor eyesight. The same system is also used in printing bank notes - the higher the rating, the larger the bill.
Traditionally, coins and banknotes in denomination of Japan issued in multiples of 1, 5 and 10. The first and only exception was made in 2000, when the summit of the Group of Eight Okinawa banknotes were printed in 2000 yen. In a society to react to their appearance is ambiguous: many stores refused to accept suspicious bills. Over time, two thousandth bills turned into a kind of numismatic rarity - in the back of their now practically can not be found, although the banks are accepted and paid.
Since 1999, Japan is actively discussing the possibility of the yen denomination: many calls to bring the currency in line with the dollar, making the largest denomination 100 yen. The main argument of proponents of the idea of ??mutual convenience is a denomination, but at the official level of support for this idea has not yet been found.